While Lyapunov redesign is restricted systems that satisfy a matching condition so that the uncertainty terms enter the state equations at the same point as the control input, the basic approach has been extended to more general situations using recursive or backstepping methods. If a process variable cannot be measured it is common to design an observer that estimates the states by observing the measurable outputs. A specific code sequence is sent from the satellite at time t1 and is received on the GPS at time t2. This strategy will detect problems related to the wires. However our main objective embraces outdoor flying and open environment, and in this situation the radio link will provide far superior range. User Manual Page

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The battery is quire heavy; g [3], and is the tradeoff when choosing such a powerful battery. To control the speed of the quadcopter along the desired velocity given by the guidance systems, a speed controller will be devised.

Magnetometer We will use the same strategy for detecting loss of connection with the magnetometer as with the range sensor, and we have the same possible errors. We found this behaviour to be satisfactory, and thus mwag not find it necessary to add integrator terms or feed forward terms to counteract the drag. Furthermore the battery was placed under the center of body as with the previous models due to its weight, this is to optimize the maneuverability of the aircraft.

In order to have a good system for testing the attitude controller we were developing, we wanted to use a two axis test sequence when tuning. Numerous methods and approaches exist for the analysis and design of nonlinear control systems. Wmmag this model, we have fulfilled the criterias stated in chapter If we used this controller on the final prototype section NET library provides functionality to send and read from serial port, as well as to check if the port is still connected.


In the simulator we managed to achieve our objective of controlling the quadcopter attitude and altitude. According to the sensor data sheet[14] the working area is cm, which satisfies our requirements for hovering and landing. A method of detecting sensor loss or sensor fault should then be determined.

Control system design for the altitude. For our quadcopter we choose plastic 10X4. Soft iron distortions causes the circle to stretch into an ellipse.

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According to the data sheet for LiPo .33v, a cell is at full power when measuring 4. We have some experience using all of these programming languages, however we only have experience of making a graphical user interfaces with C and python. Hence when the quadcopter is accelerating or turning in any way, this will affect the estimates. The quadcopter model, controller, and filters were simulated to allow for controller assessment and tuning on the computer.

If a process variable cannot be measured it is common to design an observer that estimates the states by observing the measurable outputs. This is still a better strategy than to let the motors keep spinning, where we risk further damage to people or property.

Vin Gm Ard: The altitude control problem is a highly nonlinear control problem, with challenging behavior. We have some experience using Unity for graphical user interface development, and therefore this became the obvious choice for framework. A controller that exhibits both continuous and discrete dynamic behaviour – a system that can both flow and jump.


In order to derive the system model we required knowledge of coordinate systems, Euler angles, rotation matrices ad transformation matrices. Furthermore, a quadcopter frame was designed and printed using additive manufacturing techniques. We wmga explore all the mechanical components and sensors used in our quadcopter. The gyroscope measurement suffers from low frequency random walk noise, which accumulates when integrated in the angle estimate.

A control scheme for the altitude will presented, and a solution will be chosen based on the result. On the left side we can see the cylindrical container where ng motor can be placed gh fastened using two screws from beneath, which are fastened wmg into the gb.

Range sensor used in our quadcopter. Power distribution board 2. This control is intended for changing position and not to change the angle indefinitely, for that reason the change in the pitch angle is constant while the button is pressed down and will be reset to its original angle once released. The reminding holes improves the ventilation, and this reduces the temperature of the components resting both between the frames as well as the components within the technical box.

PID control, local linearization and feedback linearization.